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Recent researchers have expanded upon the methodology developed by Masters and Johnson in attempts to further delineate the physiological processes involved in the sexual response and to study the various external factors that may influence sexual responsiveness. Previous researchers in the 1950s and 1960s had utilized a variety of measures they thought might be reflective of the sexual response: GSR (galvanic skin response), skin temperature, heart rate and respiration, and pupillary dilation. While many studies were published using one or more of these measures, this line of research provided little useful information that further enhanced our knowledge of the sex response. The basic problem is that most, if not all, of these nongenital measures reflect general arousal and are not specific to sexual arousal. Likewise, self-reports of amount of sexual arousal have generally correlated poorly with nongenital measures of arousal (Zuckerman, 1971). Thus, most recent investigations of sexual arousal have utilized genital measures, such as penile volume and vaginal blood flow and lubrication.*93\265\8*

Male homosexuals are prone to transitory physical relations and loving relations may grow out of them later. While in females physical relations develop only after years of strong emotional contact.
Is homosexuality more satisfying?
There are chances that pleasures of lesbian sex may be greater than those experienced by heterosexuals. It is difficult sometimes to understand the sex anatomy or reflexes for a man and woman to understand but partners of the same sex can understand each others desire and their Jove making is based on shared experience of a body of the same sex.
Why lesbianism is more prevalent in college hostel girls?
In double seated rooms girls practically of same age and of similar status and environment come in close contact. They get ample opportunity for hugging, kissing, touching and caressing each other. They secure environment for love by sharing meal or drink, music, talking quietly together, bathing or giving body massage to each other. They have liberty and opportunity to share the bed.
How two girls enjoy each other?
Sucking, kissing or stroking the nipples will make them harder while cupping the whole breast will make them exciting. Kissing, stroking, nibbling and lightly pinching the body all over is exciting. Once aroused pressing and rubbing each others clitoris can stroke the other to orgasm.

It means having sexual relations with children and is the most despised of all sexual practices. Paedophiles are always men althoughwomen are also being charged with indecent assault for havingsexual relations with boys in early teens. Society approves if womenstroke, cuddle and caress young children while in case of men it hasno approval.
Generally at what age paedophilia develops?It may develop at any age though peak age is around the mid to late thirties. If a person makes advances at the age of 60 then he is suffering from arteriosclerosis or is drunk or feels unbearably loving due to old age of his wife.
Who are paedophiles?These are not usually strangers. They are more likely to be relatives, friends, neighbours, priests or teachers. Sexual play does not usually go further than viewing, showing, fondling or being fondled. On occasion child invites the physical relations and enjoys them to his benefit.
Why young boys indulge in such practice?The boys or girls who enter these relations with men/women come from unhappy families, with neglectful violent, drunken parents, broken homes and have been seeking affection.
Why men prefer very young girls?
Most of them are 8 toll years of age. Girls older than 13 are attractive to many men. These men are unable to attract adults. Many of them are convinced that they cannot win a woman’s affection. They may be married finding woman frightening. The little girl is unthreatening, undemanding, innocent and spontaneous in her affection.Do children complain?Children are less likely to tell their parents when they have been actively involved in the sex play or when they have freely consented to it. If the girl reports to parents it is not certain how many parents believe the girl and how often matter is reported to the police for protecting the girl from further upset. It is a social stigma to the child too and may become a barrier for marriage.What symptoms a child may develop?Unwilling children may be frightened. Long term effects include nightmares, bed wetting, difficulty in falling asleep, fear of dark, poor performance in school and even depression has been reported. If the man has used violence the girl may suffer from frigidity in her marriage.*91\301\2*

A low intake of dietary fibre correlates with a higher incidence of heart disease, cancer of the colon, breast cancer, diverticular disease, constipation and hemorrhoids. Every Australian eats 20-25 grams of fibre a day. The recommended daily intake is a minimum of 30 grams.
Home Remedies
Sources of fibre are wholegrain cereals, psyllium seeds, guar gum, sorghum, apple pectin, bran, raw salad, vegetables and pears. Unprocessed oat bran is much more palatable than unprocessed bran from wheat. Five dessertspoons of oat bran in the bottom of a breakfast plate of processed cereal is equivalent to the daily requirement. People with constipation, hemorrhoids and diverticular disease can easily increase the dose to ten dessertspoons daily with no drop in palatability.
Over the counter preparations are effective although expensive. Preferred brands are Fybogel and Metamucil. The use of fibre supplements before meals produces an early feeling of satiety. Weight loss of a kilogram or two can be expected.
Fish Oil
Because Eskimos don’t have heart attacks and have a high intake of fish in their diet, research workers conclude that fish oils prevent hardening of the arteries. Fish oils contain Omega 3 fatty acids which do improve the cholesterol profile and prevent blood clotting in cholesterol damaged arteries. Bad news for fish populations around the world which are under enough pressure, without finding themselves put through the ringer because humans won’t reduce their animal fat intake. Take up exercise or give up cigarette smoking.
Home Remedies
Three fish meals a week provide sufficient Omega 3 fatty acids to reduce the odds of cholesterol clogging up the major arteries. Cold water fish are recommended. Local research shows that barramundi and other north Australian coastal species provide similar protection. Some people choose Maxeepa tablets, but they are expensive and the recommended intake is three grams a day.

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Obviously it is not possible to describe all the services that each social service department has to offer. Most are common to all areas but some services are ventures with voluntary groups and hence are only available in certain places. An increasingly important function available in some areas is that of a sitting service. This allows a carer to go out for a few hours and have time to themselves while someone sits in with the frail or confused old person. This can be a regular break or a one-off service. In some areas it is also developing into a night sitting service so that on some nights a carer can get an undisturbed night’s sleep while the sitter copes with the sufferer’s needs. The benefits are obvious, but there are a few drawbacks. The sitters all undergo some training (the most obvious requirement is an excess of commonsense) but occasionally the elderly person doesn’t take to a stranger – a rapport has to be built up.
Telephones often form the lifeline between an elderly person and their carers and services. It is another indictment of our system that not all elderly people that need them are provided with a telephone. Increasingly the telephone is being utilized as part of an alarm system. The person carries a pendant and in times of emergency this is activated and an alarm registers in a central control room. This central area tries to ring the home (in case of accidental triggering or in the not too infrequent cases where the person wants to talk because of loneliness) but if there is no reply a car and two helpers are dispatched to the person’s address to take appropriate action. The peace of mind this system can give is incalculable, and yet for many there are years of waiting even to get the telephone if they need social services to pay for it.
Help in the home can be very practical as well. Community occupational therapists working from social services provide the home assessment service where aids and adaptations are needed. In cases of disability and frailty they will come and assess the person at home and provide for the changes to be made. This may include blocking up chairs to make them easier to get out of, to the provision of a new purpose-built bathroom for the disabled. They will ensure that a person’s existing functions are used to the full and help them cope with new problems. If there is not just frailty but disability as well they will liaise with the disabled advisory service (again, present in most social services) for even more expert help.

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If you listen to the advertising and read the brochures, every organisation has the perfect program to virtually guarantee that you’ll quit. And each one of them can make it happen for you, but only if you really have made the commitment.
There’s a bit of controversy surrounding all the groups and clinics. Some authorities dismiss them out of hand, with the conclusion that the failure rates ate horrible and that claims to the contrary are statistically inaccurate. Others feel that formal programs can provide the additional impetus some smokers need.
One possible reason for the less-than-perfect success fate of all the programs is an exaggerated level of expectation smokers might feel as they plunk their money down. It’s as though by writing the cheque one delegates responsibility for success to the program rather than keeping that responsibility for oneself. It may well be that groups and clinics attract those who are least likely to succeed, since they want someone else to do it for them. Bear in mind that ultimately you must want to quit, and must go through the physical withdrawal that inevitably occurs. Moreover, you’ll have to make the lifestyle adjustments that allow you to live your life without cigarettes.
Who might benefit from joining a clinic? Women are likely to get more out of support groups and outside assistance than men. That’s because women are more able to open themselves up to help and suggestions. They go along with the program, following the ideas and tips to the letter, rather than fighting it as men tend to do. Women also have less need to show how tough they are in terms of going it alone. That, in fact, makes women less likely to succeed in going cold turkey.
A report from the US Surgeon General’s office indicates that on-the-job stop-smoking programs are more successful than community-based clinics. When you participate in on-the-job programs, you’re likely to be in greater contact with others making the same effort. You reinforce and support the resolve of others, and they provide the same for you. This is particularly important during the crucial first weeks after quitting.
If you have a stop-smoking program where you work, you might want to give it a try. Some companies provide this benefit, and more are adding the programs annually as they realise that healthier employees will lose less time from work and make fewer insurance claims.
For a list of the stop-smoking organisations in your area, look under “Smokers Information and Treatment” in the Yellow Pages, or contact your State Cancer Council.
Cardio & Blood/ Cholesterol

Wherever one turns – America, Canada, Kenya, Britain – there is a struggle to get this 30-year established treatment accepted by either government health schemes or private insurance companies – companies who are quite prepared to pay for a treatment such as bypass surgery which will cost them on average ten times more than a course of chelation. What deters them?
The safety of chelation therapy is not in question. That has been established by long experience with treatments for which EDTA is accepted protocol, such as a blood condition known as thalassaemia, or for heavy metal poisoning.
What is not proved to medical requirements (double-blind trials) is its efficacy in treating circulatory disease. However, there have been some 200 scientific studies concentrating on the specific effects of EDTA in circulatory disease (more than have ever been done, as stated earlier, in respect to the medical procedures of bypass surgery and angioplasty) and these, plus overwhelmingly positive empirical evidence, must surely present sufficient grounds for experimental use in certain areas.
For example, what about those medicines that can’t help any more? Those patients whom the medical profession calls by the rather besmirching term of’ ‘refractory’? Since chelation is safe and they have been given up anyway what have they – or anyone else – to lose?
Cardio & Blood/ Cholesterol

How to take a temperature

Shake the thermometer — make sure the mercury line is below 37°C. Armpit temperatures Place the thermometer in the armpit and close the arm, holding the elbow against the body. Wait for about 3-4 minutes before taking a reading. Oral temperatures In older children, place the thermometer well under one side of the tongue. Have the child hold it in place with his lips, not his teeth, and tell him to breathe through his nose. Make sure that he has not had a hot or cold drink within the last 5 minutes. Wait for about 3-4 minutes before taking a reading. Rectal temperatures We do not recommend this, unless it is performed by your nurse or doctor.


Fever is not an illness in itself but is the sign of an illness. There are many causes of fever in childhood. Most fevers, and the illnesses that cause them, are of relatively short duration. A fever may occasionally last much longer, and may be the sign of an underlying chronic or long-term illness or disease.

Infections are by far the commonest cause of fever in children. Most of these are caused by viruses, which are responsible for colds, upper respiratory infections, some ear infections, and the common infectious diseases of childhood such as chicken pox. These infections are self-limited (that is, they resolve after a period of time) and usually no specific treatment is necessary.

Some infections are caused by bacteria, and do need treatment with antibiotics. These include certain ear and throat infections, urine infections, pneumonia, and blood infections.

Other causes of fever are relatively uncommon, and include allergic reactions to drugs, chronic joint inflammation, some tumours, and gastrointestinal diseases.


This test is used to diagnose urinary tract infections. The specimen must be fresh and sent without delay to the laboratory. If urine is left at room temperature for more than an hour, there can be difficulty in interpreting the final results of the test because of multiplication of germs in the sample.


Wipe your child’s genital area with warm water, paying special attention in girls to wash the area between the labia. In girls hold the labia apart and ask the child to pass urine. Let the first few drops fall into the toilet or potty and then collect the rest in a sterile specimen jar provided by your doctor or nurse. The procedure is somewhat easier in boys, but make sure that the child does not touch the tip of his penis after you have wiped the area clean before collecting the specimen.

The specimen is sent to the laboratory and a sample is checked under the microscope immediately. A few drops of urine are also placed on a special culture medium, and incubated for 72 hours. After 24 hours any germs present will reproduce and be detected. This can help to identify the cause of your child’s urinary tract infection. The laboratory technician will also be able to check which antibiotics the germ is sensitive to and this will guide the choice of antibiotic the doctor uses to treat the infection.


When I left my department-manager job and took over the whole store, everything changed. I felt different. Happy and sad at the same time. I was proud and excited, but sad that there was no going back. I would never be quite like I was before. I know that adjustment affected our sex. I was sort of afraid to have sex for some reason after the promotion. I don’t know if it was superstition or not, but it was like I was insecure, didn’t want to rock the boat, jinx myself. I got so busy trying to prove to everybody that I deserved the promotion that I never thought about deserving my wife or what she deserved.


As I indicated earlier, mid-life crises are life crises that are finally getting our attention. There are as many books on transitions in life as there are transitions. Attention to sexual intimacy at times of change, no matter what “stage” we feel we are leaving or entering, preserves and enhances our intimate relationship and helps us through any transition.

I have listed some of the most recent sources of research on transitional life changes and adult development in the notes for this chapter. One of the most carefully researched approaches to adult development is by Dr. Gerald Levinson. He mixes sound research with interesting insights about the fact that development is not just something children do.

I noticed that at every major professional meeting on sexuality, professionals talk about overall life development more than about genitals. They do so because sex and development are one and the same. I have designed my own informal “adult sexual development cycle” that was used by the couples to discuss their own feelings about their sexual “place” at various times in their own lives. These are not steps or stages. Each phase is more like an overlapping spiral within which we move back and forth. Adults, like children, never “enter” a stage. They encounter life challenges and cope using their available resources at that time. So, as you look at each adult sexual cycle derived from my interviews, view them as reciprocal and interwoven, as stimuli for more learning, not places or stages.


Early Childhood

Integration of physical and emotional sexual sensations, combining touch with feelings

School Age

Overcoming sanctions against sexual self-worth and enhancing sexual self-esteem


Developing sensitivity to*and for other gender and accepting sensitivity to same gender


Integrating love needs with sex needs

Young Adulthood

Expressing vulnerability and transcending needs to withhold


Learning value of stability and coping with pressures for variety

Mature Adulthood

Enjoying inclusivity, sharing in balance with autonomy and individuality

Aging Adulthood

Remaining creative in balance with accepting and tolerace


The sexual histories and the multiple therapy visits of the couples, as well as the thousands of other interviews of persons coming for sexual help, revealed a pattern of recurring sexual cycles that related to the development of each spouse’s love map. Here are the eight cycles briefly outlined. The future of therapy for sexual problems rests in this family and developmental approach more than the discovery of new techniques, postures, and genital reflex controls.


For example, some surgeons recommend very major surgery for locally extensive cancer of the cervix (neck of the womb). This operation is sometimes recommended for cancer of the cervix that has grown into nearby pelvic organs: removal of the entire womb, upper vagina, fallopian tubes, both ovaries, all pelvic lymph nodes, the bladder and the lower bowel. The woman is left with bags on openings in the abdominal wall for both urine and faeces. People who agree to such surgery only because it gives them a chance of being cured altogether, should be checked very, very carefully for blood-borne secondary deposits beforehand. The check on the lungs I described above would not be sufficient if surgery like this was planned. Because the lungs are a common site for secondary cancer of the cervix they should be checked with a CT scan before such a drastic operation.

On the other hand, some of the less drastic operations aimed at cure also have a secondary aim. Surgical removal can be the best way of preventing or relieving symptoms from the primary growth. Thus, even people who are not cured may stand to gain something important from these operations—prevention or relief of unpleasant symptoms. Find out whether this is true for the operation that has been recommended for you. If you are sure that the operation is worth having even if if doesn’t cure you, it doesn’t matter so much if small secondary deposits are not found before the operation. Finding them after the operation like this would certainly be disappointing, but just think how much worse it would be for a patient who had had the operation for cervix cancer described above—it would be a complete tragedy.


Although occasionally cysts rupture, they usually signal their presence by causing pressure on some organ or a lump in the abdomen becomes noticeable.

Diagnosis may not be easy. X-rays or scans of the liver using radioactive marker chemicals are not specific; what they confirm is the presence of a lump.

Several other tests using injections of serum into the skin have been in use for many years but they are not always accurate.

Some researchers have come up with a novel treatment in experimental animals, where the inner fluid of the cyst is removed and replaced with serum from an infected animal. Presumably the antibodies contained in the serum destroy the parasite. This has not been transferred to the treatment of humans.

Recently the use of drugs previously used to kill worms in animals has been successfully tried in man. Mebendazole and its derivatives have a low level of toxicity and show promising results.


Cats are clean animals — but they can be a danger to pregnant women.

They pose the risk of the condition called toxoplasmosis.

In most cases, this is a mild human infection but, if a woman gets it for the first time during pregnancy, severe damage can occur to the foetus.

Toxoplasma gondii is a minute one-celled animal which appears to be a natural parasite of the cat, but for which other animals, some birds and even reptiles may act as intermediate hosts.

Oocysts or eggs may be passed with the faeces and be a source of infection.

Contact with the cat’s litter-tray or gardening without gloves in soil where the faeces may be buried can infect humans.

Eating improperly cooked meat, which may contain the oocysts, is another source of infection, if not the main one. Blood tests show that most of us eventually come into contact with the parasite, which appears to be widespread in most countries, although infections are often mild and undiagnosed.


This is the most basic form of stress relief practised by both professional and non-professional alike. Here, the patient is encouraged to talk about his problems and anxieties to an individual who will be sympathetic and supportive. One does not have to be a psychiatrist to qualify as an audience of course. A tolerant friend may suffice, and for centuries the clergy filled this role, and many of them still do. However, the impersonality of the professional, his skilled prompting and therapeutic intent, give him a great advantage. A disadvantage is his costliness, but that reinforces the impersonality and also makes the process more purposeful for the patient. It gives the patient, to put it bluntly, a financial motive for recovery.

Sensitive physicians practise this form of supportive psychotherapy intuitively. The patient is made to fed that he it worthwhile, and that the doctor wants more than anything in the world to help him. As a result of his warm, friendly, positive attitude, the physician enables the patient to feel secure, accepted, protected, less anxious, and encouraged towards health. The aim is not to remake the personality but to help an individual over a rough spot in his life. Advice may be given about rest, exercise, diet, use of drugs, hobbies etc. Sympathetic counselling about dealing with practical issues is given. With reassurance and support, the doctor reinforces the patient’s defences against anxiety, emphasizes his capacity to get well, encourages self-esteem, and permits the patient to have a corrective emotional experience with someone who treats him differently from all other persons in his life.

This type of therapy is, of course, quite different from the analytic type practised by psychiatrists. The latter is aimed at uncovering unconscious material and allowing it to be aired, in the hope that a permanent change in personality can be effected. Analysis, which is in the realm of psychiatric treatment may, in severe cases, be required. It is interesting, however, to note that rashes of the type seen in neurodermatitis are a result of unresolved conflict. Whereas people with psychiatric diseases have virtually given up the struggle to resolve their conflicts, and therefore the incidence of stress-related skin diseases amongst such individuals is very small.


Low G.I. eating means making a move back to the high carbohydrate foods which are staples in many parts of the world. The emphasis is on whole foods like whole grains—barley, oats, dried peas and beans, in combination with certain types of rice, breads, pasta, vegetables and fruits. You’ll find the recipes listed under each of our three main eating occasions—breakfasts, light meals (like soups, salads and pastas), and main meals with additional sections on desserts and snacks. While some of the recipes are specifically modified to lower the G.I. others are included to present new ways of preparing low G.I. foods.

The recipes have been developed to help you reduce the overall G.L factor of your diet improving its nutritional quality while you do it. They are designed to be incorporated into your usual diet, helping you to get your carbohydrate intake up to 50 to 60 per cent of your kilojoule intake and keeping your fat intake down to the recommended level of 30 per cent of kilojoules per day. Protein should stay constant at 10 to 15 per cent of energy. Most of the recipes are high in fibre, both soluble and insoluble.

Each recipe has been analysed for its nutritional value which is given per serve where the recipe is divided into a specified number of serves. The following information will help put this nutritional profile into context for you.

Kilojoules. The metric equivalent of Calories. This is the measure of how much energy the food provides. Those who bum lots of energy through exercise need a higher kilojoule intake than those who live more sedentary lives. A moderately active woman aged 18 to 54 years would consume about 8000 kilojoules a day; a man about 10 000 kilo-joules.

Fat. Our fat requirement is probably as small as 10 grams a day to provide essential fatty acids needed for health. The range of acceptable fat intake depends on your total kilojoule intake. People trying to lose weight could aim for around 30 to 40 grams of fat a day. Most others could do with 50 to 60 grams. Children and adolescents need more than adults because they are growing and should not have their fat intake overt/ restricted.

Carbohydrate. The total amount of carbohydrate (which includes starches and sugars) is listed with each recipe. Our aim is to help you increase your carbohydrate intake as your fat intake drops. It is not necessary to calculate how many grams of carbohydrate you eat on a daily basis, however the athlete or person with diabetes may find this information useful. This is so they can eat enough! On average, women should take in 250 grams of carbohydrate each day while men need about 350 grams. Athletes can consume anywhere from 350 to 700 grams of carbohydrate a day.

Fibre. It is recommended that we consume at least 30 grams of dietary fibre every day. A slice of wholemeal bread provides 2 grams of fibre, an average apple 4 grams. The average Australian consumes only 18 grams of fibre a day.


Physiological adjustment. It has been recognised since the 1980s that overfeeding does not always result in the weight gain predicted by the physics energy balance equation. This is because in humans, the body defends itself against an imbalance between EI and EE by adjusting, within limits, the one to the other. Adjustment refers to the metabolic, physiological and behavioural changes that occur when the equilibrium, or ‘settling point’ is altered by a positive or negative energy imbalance. The adjustments tend to oppose the energy imbalance to minimise the effect on body weight changes. This helps to explain why, with such huge variations in energy intake and energy expenditure over a year, there are normally only minor fluctuations in body weight in most people. It also helps to explain the plateaus and rebounds during a fat loss program.

The popular belief (based on the physics model presented above) is that fat or weight loss can be calculated in a linear fashion from the calorie deficit. However, reducing the amount of food eaten over a set period by a total of 3500kcals, will not result in an automatic loss of 0.45kg of fat, which would be predicted as the storage equivalent of 3500kcal. Adjustment in energy expenditure through a decrease in metabolic rate in particular, would mean that the reduction in body stores is much less than expected. The opposite also holds true for a positive energy balance. When more is eaten than is used up as energy, metabolic rate increases as body mass increases and again, the fat gain will be less than predicted.

It is this physiological adjustment which has been typically under-estimated in discussions of weight control, although a range of research has now identified it as a key factor in the long term failure of many programs. Adjustment is a biological protective mechanism which prevents excessive long term gains and losses in body energy stores. It is more effective in some people than others (perhaps partly genetically determined). It may also be more strenuously invoked if the energy deficit and weight loss are large.

The short term adjustments are mainly through appetite control, although changes in the thermic effects of food (TEF) are directly related to meal size. Lethargy can be a marked feature of low energy intakes. In the longer term as fat mass and FFM decrease so do RMR and fat burning (higher RQ). Often the changes are greater than expected and this is called adaptation. For example, the fall in RMR may be much greater than expected for the loss of FFM. The adaptive changes are a sign of active mechanisms in the body opposing major shifts in body weight.

Myth-information. Arguments about the benefits of butter or margarine are largely irrelevant when considering their use in fat loss. Both have equivalent fat energy value (i.e. 9 kcal/g).


Pain is a message which tells us that a part of the body has been damaged or injured in some way. The message is transmitted by a network of nerves from the site of the damage or injury to the brain — where it is perceived as pain.

Pain is the dominant symptom for many women with endometriosis. Until recently the management of pain was largely ignored by the medical profession, and even now there is little written about which pain management techniques are the most beneficial for the relief of the pain associated with endometriosis.

It is thought that much of the pain of endometriosis, especially that experienced during menstruation, occurs when the implants bleed on to the tissues surrounding them, causing inflammation and the release of chemicals known as prostaglandins which in turn causes pain.

The endometrial implants and cysts may also cause pain as they grow and swell during the second half of the menstrual cycle, particularly if they are embedded in the ovary.

Adhesions can cause pain because they pull and stretch the organs in the pelvic cavity into abnormal positions.

The rupture of an endometrioma may also cause pain because the spillage of its contents severely irritates the surrounding tissues, causing inflammation and the release of prostaglandins.


Sampson’s theory of retrograde menstruation is by far the most popular theory of the development of endometriosis and it probably explains the vast majority of cases. According to this theory endometriosis develops when menstrual fluid from the uterus flows backwards through the fallopian tubes and out into die pelvic cavity during the menstrual period. This process of backward flow is known as retrograde menstruation which is a normal process that occurs in the majority of women. When the menstrual fluid flows out of the ends of the fallopian tubes it is deposited onto the surrounding organs and tissues. The menstrual fluid contains blood and fragments of endometrium. Some of these fragments of endometrium are still living and they implant themselves on the surface of the tissue and begin to grow and function. These patches of implanted endometrium are known as endometrial implants, deposits or cysts. Although it is known that most women have retrograde menstruation, it is not known why only a small percentage actually develop endometriosis.


Vitamin C is another vitamin which is seriously involved in heart disease.

The foremost authority on vitamin C in the world, Dr. W. J. McCormick, has shown that the deficiency of vitamin C is one of the causes of coronary thrombosis. Vitamin C deficiency causes ruptures in the blood vessel walls with resultant bleeding which leads to the development of the clot and consequent heart attack. Clinical studies of the vitamin C level in coronary patients showed that 81 percent of them had a subnormal level of vitamin C in their blood.

Russian scientists have found that vitamin C has the ability to drastically lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood. A sharp decline of the cholesterol level—up to 50 percent—was noticed within a 24-hour period after administering ascorbic acid, or vitamin C.

This evidence may suffice to impress upon you that your diet should contain plenty of vitamin C. It strengthens the walls of blood vessels and capillaries, as well as all the connective tissues of the body. It reduces the cholesterol level in the blood and in the walls of the arteries and prevents the development of atherosclerosis and heart attacks. In addition, vitamin C is the most universal of all vitamins in its prophylactic and therapeutic benefits. It is good for your gums, eyes, and skin. It protects against colds and infections, and is an effective anti-toxin. It will protect your body from the harmful effects of many poisons in food and environment and has a protective, buffering action in all conditions of stress. The average American diet is deficient in vitamin C, as has been shown in many studies and tests.


At the recent seminar on heart disease in Phoenix, Arizona, the famous heart specialist Dr. Paul Dudley White said that the key to heart disease is in the kitchen. Much heart disease begins in childhood and starts with overeating. He blamed mothers for raising a generation of prospective heart cases, and shortening the lives of their children and their husbands, by feeding them too much of the wrong foods. He particularly condemned the starchy foods of the refined carbohydrate category, such as white sugar and white flour, and too much meat, milk and milk products, as the chief fat producers and direct causes of heart troubles.

In order to understand how faulty nutrition can cause heart disease we must understand that health is a harmonious functioning of all the organs of the body, including the arteries and the heart, and is a result of living in a healthy natural environment and eating natural foods. When man’s environment and his foods are adulterated—as is the case now with processed, devitalized and poisoned foods, and polluted air and water—then an impairment in the general metabolism of the body results. Nutritional deficiencies, incomplete digestion and assimilation, glandular disturbances, malfunctions of the nervous system, autointoxication, biochemical imbalance in the tissues and blood—all these and many other physiological and degenerative changes are the result of man’s adulterated environment and faulty nutrition. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels do not develop suddenly, but rather are the end result of long-time neglect of normal body maintenance.

Faulty nutrition with too much of refined carbohydrates, white sugar and white flour, animal fats, coffee, tobacco, and alcohol, accompanied by lack of exercise, leads to obesity, high blood pressure, hardening of the arteries, digestive disturbances, constipation and many other conditions. Often these may be in so-called sub-clinical stages of which the individual may not be particularly aware. When these pathological changes occur, the body in self defense will attempt to cope with the adverse conditions and try to sustain life by adapting to the new situation. When blood vessels become clogged with cholesterol deposits, the heart increases blood pressure to assure an adequate blood supply through the narrowed blood vessels. When the digestive and eliminative organs and glands become affected and prematurely wear out or break down, the heart muscle will enlarge to cope with the increased amount of work and protect the whole organism from collapse. When the circulation has been so decreased due to the plugged coronary arteries that too little oxygen reaches the heart, pain occurs. This is known as angina. Thus, although we have many different forms of heart disease, they are not isolated phenomena but are related to the general health of the body. Heart disease is the result of long-time abuse in the form of poor living habits and faulty nutrition.


The following food supplements, in addition to the ones mentioned above, are used and recommended by most biologically oriented practitioners:

Brewer’s yeast (or food yeast) —about 3 tbsp. a day.

Note: never use yeast intended for baking!

Cod liver oil, plain, not fortified—1 tsp. a day.

Raw wheat germ—2 to 3 tbsp. a day.

Wheat germ oil—2 tsp. a day.

Lecithin (granules or liquid) —1 tbsp. a day.

Whey, tablets or powder (for better intestinal hygiene).

In addition, such natural foods as honey, soybeans, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, raw nuts, yogurt, black molasses, and cold-pressed vegetable oils should be used to make a well balanced and nutritious diet.

Parenthetically, for the best effect and the fullest biological value, all vitamins and minerals and other food supplements should always be taken with meals. Because many vitamins are water soluble, and when taken in large doses may be readily lost in urine, it is advisable that the daily dose should be evenly divided between three meals, rather than taken all at one time.


In Finland, the steam bath, or sauna, is an historic tradition. For over a thousand years the sauna has been an important part of Finnish life and Finnish culture, cherished by every Finnish man.

woman and child. The sauna is credited for much of the rugged vitality and endurance—the sisu—of the Finnish people.

In a country of less than 5 million people, there are an estimated 700,000 steam bath facilities—one sauna for every 7 people! Most Finnish saunas are in separate buildings specially constructed for this purpose. Every farm has its own sauna, usually built on the shore of a lake or river. Most family houses in the city have saunas built on the lot, usually in the back yard.

Finnish sauna bathing starts with loyly, which is the Finnish word for steam Water is thrown over hot stones, hot steam fills the room and raises the temperature. The bather can sit on a low or high bench, depending on the temperature he prefers. The usual temperature for a Finnish sauna is about 212° F, sometimes even higher. For the uninitiated I would not advise temperatures higher than 180-190° F.

In order to further increase the effect of heat and stimulate sweating, the Finns use birch brooms, vihta. Fresh birch branches with leaves are tied together to form a short broom. They are used fresh in summer or dried in winter. The dried broom is dipped in warm water and regains the same shape as the fresh one. Bathers hit themselves all over with these birch brooms. It may seem odd and eccentric to the uninitiated, but you have to try it for yourself to appreciate the fantastic delight and unbelievable pleasure the sauna with a birch broom can give.

After hot loyly, bathers usually jump into the nearby lake or river, or in winter they run out and roll in soft snow. What an exhilarating and delightful experience! Then they return to the sauna and warm up again, either by sitting up on the benches or taking more loyly with the brooms. Following this they wash themselves with warm water and soap and finish by throwing a bucket of cold water over themselves. In modern saunas, of course, there are showers and even swimming pools.

Finally, the bathers take a long relaxing rest on the benches in the dressing room and allow the wide-open pores to close, perspiration to cease, and the body to return slowly to normal temperature.

Therapeutic properties of sauna

In addition to the prophylactic and therapeutic benefits of an artificially raised fever, which a prolonged steam bath always accomplishes, the sauna bath is specifically conducive to profuse therapeutic sweating. Many toxins, accumulated in the system as a result of metabolic wastes and sluggish elimination, are thrown out of the body with perspiration. The skin is our largest eliminative organ, “the third kidney.” The skin should eliminate 30 percent of the body wastes by way of perspiration. Hundreds of thousands of tiny sweat glands act not only as the regulators of body temperature, but also as small kidneys, detoxifying organs, ready to cleanse the blood and free the system from health-threatening poisons. When the kidneys, cannot eliminate the normal quantities of urine due to overwork or a weakened condition, the body tries to eliminate such wastes by way of the skin. Uric acid, a normal compound of urine, is found in large amounts in the perspiration. The chemical analysis of sweat shows that it has almost the same constituents as urine.

The American conception of the sauna seems to be that it is helpful in reducing weight by eliminating several pounds of water through sweating. But the benefits of the sauna are far beyond mere reducing. You not only lose water by sweating in the sauna, but sweating also cleans your body of toxins, wastes and impurities.

Thus, the prophylactic value of a steam bath for normally healthy people wishing to stay healthy and prevent illness, is easy to realize. However, the therapeutic value of sauna is just as great as the prophylactic.

The therapeutic property of sauna is attributed to the following facts:

Overheating with loyly stimulates and speeds up the metabolic processes and inhibits the growth of virus or bacteria.

The vital organs and glands are stimulated to increased activity.

The body’s healing and restorative capacity is accelerated.

The eliminative, detoxifying and cleansing capacity of the skin is dramatically increased by the stimulating action of the sweat glands.

The body is thoroughly cleansed and rejuvenated inside and out.

Many authorities attribute the phenomenal therapeutic properties of sauna to the Finnish custom of jumping into cold water or snow during bathing. The sudden changes in temperature are known to stimulate adrenal glands; the effect of the alternate hot and cold bath is likened to a cortisone injection.


American readers need no introduction to juices. The United States can take credit for the popularization of juice both as a food and as a drink. Juices of countless kinds and descriptions form a major part of the food processing industry. Just walk to any supermarket and you will see whole departments of long shelves full of various brands of juices and drinks. You’ll find juices in gallon jars, in tin cans, in glass bottles, and in waxed cartons. You may have your juice fresh, frozen, canned, concentrated, mixed, reconstituted, synthetic, sugar-added, natural, colored—have your pick! You can buy it at your favorite food store, get it from the automatic dispenser, buy it at the corner drug store or garage, or have it delivered to your doorstep each morning by your milkman. Almost all Americans drink juice for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. We are, without question, the biggest juice drinkers in the world!

Although the popularity of juice is based on the premise that it is good for your health—and for this reason many a mother forces orange juice down the

throats of her kids each morning—it does not seem to have been doing any good for the health of the American people. It seems that we are much sicker now than a generation or two back, prior to the juice drinking fad. milkman. Almost all Americans drink juice for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. We are, without question, the biggest juice drinkers in the world!

Although the popularity of juice is based on the premise that it is good for your health—and for this reason many a mother forces orange juice down the The explanation of this paradox is simple. The kind of juices most Americans drink not only lack health-giving properties, but may, in addition, be hazardous to health. Because of extensive processing, heating, chemical treatments, synthetic artificial colorings and flavorings, sugar or artificial sweeteners, and additions of many toxic preservatives, the juices or the so-called juice drinks you buy at your supermarket today bear no resemblance to the juices which were originally meant to be health-giving beverages—fresh, Taw, natural juices. Just read the labels on the cans and you’ll see what I mean!

So let’s make this thing clear once and for all: the only juices which can be considered as health-giving, or conducive to good health and well-being, and can be recommended for the therapeutic use in the healing of disease or as a preventive measure in maintaining good health, are fresh, raw, natural juices, prepared immediately before drinking from fresh fruits, berries, vegetables, and green plants. Such juices you won’t find at the usual kind of supermarket.


When I recently met Dr. Karl-Otto Aly, a prominent Swedish doctor, upon his return from a lecture tour in the United States and asked, “What was the one most memorable impression of this trip,” he said:

“The American high-protein craze! Not only the general public, but even the so-called health enthusiasts are so thoroughly brainwashed on the question of protein in their diet that, to my mind, this factor alone may be held to a great degree responsible for the deplorable state of health of the American people—in addition, of course, to the American over-processed, chemicalized and devitalized foods.”

Dr. Aly told me that after his lectures people would come to the stage and look closely at his face to see if he didn’t have rouge on it. They just couldn’t believe that a man could look so healthy and robust without eating meat. They kept asking him, “But where do you get your proteins?”

The absolute maxim of any respectable American health system is its high-protein requirement. Yet, practically all the top men in the European health field are unanimous in their endorsement of a low-protein diet, particularly a low-animal-protein diet, as the diet most conducive to good health and long life! Empirical evidence in support of low-protein as against high-protein intake is equally impressive.


Perhaps of all natural living waters salt sea water has the greatest curative power.

We all have experienced the invigorating effect of a few days or weeks by the seashore. The reasons are obvious: It has been shown that minerals are absorbed through the skin and also through the inhaled mineral-rich air by the seashore.

Sea water is extremely rich in beneficial minerals. One to two teaspoons a day can be used internally as a mineral supplement. Make every effort to spend your holiday by the sea. In addition to providing the usual benefits of cold water bathing, salt water and salt air will recharge your system with health-restoring and rejuvenating minerals.

If you are not fortunate enough to live near the ocean, here is an easy do-it-yourself salt water bath which you can enjoy right in your own bathtub.

Three or four pounds of sea salt is dissolved in a tub half-full of cool water. Enjoy salt water swimming by rubbing yourself briskly, then drying yourself warm with coarse towels. If sea salt is not available (health food stores are the most likely places to find it), the following ingredients can be substituted for it:

3,5lb. common salt

0,5 lb. magnesium chloride

0,5 lb. Epsom salts


Once upon a time (until about 25-30 years ago) the United States had many well-known and well-frequented spas. Dr. Kellog’s Battle Creek Spa was one of the most familiar ones. Many others were active in Florida, near Chicago and on the West Coast. Most of them were operated by Europeans who migrated from Western Europe and brought with them the experience of similar watering places in the old country. Millions of people visited these spas, took baths or “cures,” and relieved themselves of aches and pains, of arthritis and high blood pressure, of depression and eczema.

But with the advent of the chemical takeover of medicine these spas have now almost completely disappeared from the American scene. An average American wouldn’t think of “tampering” with his health by going to a water cure spa or taking a mineral bath—any more than he would try to improve his health by eating organically grown foods. These things are strictly for the “health nuts”!


The young doctor who saved the life of a dying patient with raw foods was a Swiss, Dr. Max Bircher-Benner, who was later to become known in modern text books on nutrition as “a classic in dietetics.” He initiated a new school of medical thinking, and during 40 years of practical application and experiments in his clinic in Zurich, proved to his skeptical and conservative colleagues that there are powerful, curative and health-promoting factors in fresh raw foods.<неиAt the time when vitamins and enzymes were yet undiscovered, Dr. Bircher-Benner found that raw foods contained a higher order and quality of nutritive energy, or sun energy, and a life-sustaining and curative power, which were lost in foods subjected to physical and chemical changes such as processing or heating.<неиThis assumption was confirmed 40 years later by several scientific investigations. Nobel Prize-winning physicist Schroedinger, of Dublin, confirmed that raw foods contain “the life maintaining” power. Professor Eppinger, of the University of Vienna, showed that raw food raises the “micro-electric potentials” in living cells.


The classic form of fasting is a pure water fast—the abstinence of all foods or drinks with the exception of pure water. However, the most common fasting method in Europe now is a so-called juice fasting. All European practitioners whom I talked with in various clinics, including the champion of therapeutic fasting in modern times, Dr. Otto H. F. Buchinger, Jr., use fresh juices of fruits and vegetables and vegetable broths and herb teas during fasting.

The medical justification of juice fasting is that freshly pressed vegetable and fruit juices will aid the patient in his recovery from disease. This is attributed to the following physiological facts:

Raw juices, as well as freshly made vegetable broths, are rich in vitamins, minerals, trace elements and enzymes.

These vital elements are very easily assimilated directly into the blood stream, without putting a strain on the digestive organs.

They, are extremely beneficial in normalizing the bodily processes, supplying needed elements for the body’s own healing activity and thus speeding up the recovery.

Raw juices and vegetable broths provide an alkaline surplus which is extremely important for the proper acid-alkaline balance, since blood and tissues contain large amounts of acids during fasting.


In Sweden fasting is used not only in the hospitals and clinics by medical practitioners, but also by thousands of health enthusiasts around the country as a positive health measure to improve health and prevent disease.

Here are a few headlines from the clippings of Swedish magazines and newspapers lying on my table:

“Fast for better spring condition!”

“Fast this summer to keep in shape!”

“Eleven fasting vikings walk from Gothenburg to Stockholm (300 miles) without food!”

“Without food for 143 days!”

Every spring and summer several groups of Swedish health enthusiasts and hundreds of individuals fast for one, two or more weeks. This is done not for the cure of any particular pathological condition, but as a kind of spring cleaning to purify their bodies from the toxins and the waste matter accumulated during long winter months of sedentary life and the lack of fresh foods. In addition, many Swedes take a regular Fasting Cure at the various biological clinics in the country under expert supervision.



one part Epsom salts.

eight parts fine white sugar.

just enough water to barely dissolve the above.

Mix all three ingredients together and heat to boiling. Have a small container of cold water beside the saucepan and put a drop of the hot mixture into the water from time to time. Continue to boil until the test drop will form a firm ball when dropped in the water. When the mixture reaches the stage where the ball is easily made, it is ready. Remove from heat and pour onto a greased plate or wax paper. Allow to cool slightly. Pull into ropes and cut into pieces before it gets too hard to be manageable. When this whole procedure is done correctly, it will produce a tough, hard candy lozenge.

How To Use The Lozenge.

Choose a time for this treatment when you have two to three hours to spend outdoors in the garden or on a long hike through the woods. Take a piece of the candy and work it around in the mouth. It will dissolve, filling your mouth with saliva. Do not swallow this. Neither white sugar nor Epsom salts are good in anyone’s stomach. Spit the mixture out; then, have another piece of the candy. Repeat this over and over for about three hours. After the last piece, wash the mouth out thoroughly with water. This will remove what is left of the sugar and the salts.

What is happening is this: The sugar activates the mucous membranes causing them to pour forth copiously. The Epsom salts, long recognized for their drawing power, take the toxins out with the saliva and thus get right to the root of the infection, with cleansing power.

For this treatment to be effective, it is essential that the prescribed amount of time be spent upon it. Natural treatments always take longer than taking a pill, but they are much better for the body and effect a much more permanent change in the end. Considerable relief should be experienced from this first treatment, but if you find that the cleansing has not been complete, then follow it with second and third treatments, as necessary.

Case History

As a fruitage of many years of bad eating habits, one man had developed quite a catarrhal condition. He became interested in the practice of healthful living and found much improvement in his health and vitality as a result. But the catarrh persisted. He tried to overcome it by fasting, fruit regimens and restricting himself to very simple dieting, but all without success.

Then he became acquainted with the Epsom salts cure and determined to give it a try. For over three hours one day while working in the garden, he sucked on the lozenges and, as fast as the saliva filled his mouth, he buried it along the rows of vegetables. He found that he did not need to continuously have the candy in his mouth for the process to continue. Once the saliva had been set going, it continued to leak into his mouth, and he only needed to add further candy at quite long intervals.

For the first time in many years, he experienced relief from his ailment, and what wonderful relief it was! However, after several weeks, there was a slight recurrence of the trouble. He had another session with the lozenges, which he now kept in an airtight jar. This time it was much shorter, lasting only about an hour or a little more. This apparently removed the last residues of the catarrhal infection, for in the intervening sixteen years he has had no further trouble with it.

It will be found that there is only a very slightly unpleasant taste as the sugar is so strong, and no one should have any difficulty with it from this point of view.


For the application of heat to an injury that is beginning to grow old and where swelling is pronounced, steam is very good. The method is as follows. Take some form of steam-generating equipment, such as an electric kettle, electric fry pan, or an electric jug. In all cases, leave the lids on or just pushed a little to one side or use the spout or vent for the steam escape. Place this a couple of feet below the injured part and form a tent with a blanket or heavy covering that covers both the injured part and the kettle. One article of furniture that lends itself well to this form of tent is a wooden chair. Place the kettle or steam utensil so that the steam rises and strikes against the bottom of the chair. Have the patient rest his leg or arm on the chair seat and envelop the whole with a blanket.

The steam will circulate around the injury, thoroughly heating and sweating it. The kettle will need to be regulated by turning it on and off; otherwise, the heat becomes too intense and the patient may be scalded. Every 5 or 10 minutes, bathe the area with ice water, or simply wrap a cloth saturated with ice water around the part.

In certain areas where electricity is not available, the steam can be generated by using a primus or other pressure fuel stove. Simply stand the primus on the floor with the kettle on top of the flame. Mount a plastic or metal pipe on the spout from which the steam will pour and insert the pipe into the tent. The pipe will need to be a little higher where it enters the tent than the level of the spout. Plastic waterpipe is ideal for the purpose.

Hamstrings, bruises, strains, sprains, and even the damaged tissues around broken bones can be very successfully treated in this way. In fact, before a broken bone is delivered to the doctor for setting, a thorough course of hot and cold treatments should be given to clear away pain, swelling and congestion.


At this point it would be well to explain another related treatment in this line, the castor oil pack. It is one thing to have an acid stomach and intestines, but when this situation becomes chronic and the glands and tissues round about the stomach area become clogged and break down because the system is becoming over-acid throughout, sterner measures need to be taken. Castor oil is a harsh laxative and should not be used internally. However, when used externally it penetrates through the skin to underlying tissues and breaks up the congestion being felt in the glands and tissues of the intestines. This congestion is then taken away through the eliminative organs. The quicker you can get rid of this loosened poison, the better, so periodic enemas would be beneficial, or better still, colonic irrigations.

How to make the pack:

Use a towel or an old sheet torn into a square about the size of a towel. Lay this on the table or bed. In the middle of this, or perhaps just slightly above center, fold a plastic bag large enough to cover the abdomen. (Plastic liners for small litter containers are fine for this if you cut off the sealed end so they will lie flat.) On top of this place a piece of thick cloth or a double thickness of sheeting. Warm the castor oil by placing the bottle in a pan of warm water for a few minutes until it becomes free-flowing. Pour this over the cloth on top of the plastic until it is evenly distributed.

Pick up this pack and place it, oiled side in, around the patient’s abdomen, securing it comfortably behind with a pin. He may feel a little over-burdened or frustrated for the first few minutes, but he should just relax and let it do its work. It will not be long until he will feel comfortable enough to drop off to sleep. In the morning just remove the pack and wipe over the skin with soap and water. Wear the oil pack on the abdomen for 3 nights in a row, then go without it for 3 nights. This pattern (3 on, 3 off) is repeated until 15 nights have been completed in this manner.

Castor oil is also useful in the case of painful hemorrhoids (piles). Take a piece of cotton (cotton wool) and dip it in castor oil. Insert this into the rectum. If the piles are protruding, lie down and gently encourage them back into the rectum with the cotton wool dipped in castor oil. Leave the cotton wool in place all night. If very painful piles are experienced, then a fresh piece with castor oil needs to be used about every two hours. However, it will not take long to ease the pain and shrink the piles.

Although castor oil should not be used as a laxative, olive oil is excellent for this purpose. One to two teaspoons taken 15 to 20 minutes before breakfast will relieve constipation and will also promote healing to the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract. For those who have inflamed, irritated stomachs, it is better than any drug. If you find this hard to take first thing in the morning, try it at noon before the mid-day meal, or in the evening before retiring.


This little boy started to go down with a fever in the morning and was sponged with cool water on and off through the day. In the late afternoon the temperature began to rise again, so an Epsom salts bath was tried. He went to sleep after that until seven p.m., when he awoke with a raging fever. The temperature taken from the arm pit registered 102° F. The wet pack was suggested. The child’s parents tried a slightly different variation of this treatment, but we record it here to show that the particular method is not as important as the general compliance with principle. For the sake of recognition, we will call it a cold compress. This will reduce a fever in the same way as the wet sheet, but only part of the body is covered at one time. Just like the wet sheet pack, in the cold compress the cloth must be removed as soon as it warms up and replaced with another cold cloth.

These parents understood the principle and worked at it in their own way for their child. First they placed him on a blanket; then they took a wet tea towel, folded it in four, and placed this down the front of his body. Next, a hot water bottle was put at his feet, and he was then wrapped up in the blanket. To quiet his fears, the parents assured him that they were doing all they could to relieve his troubles and sang hymns to help calm him. He soon responded to this soothing influence and allowed them to work away on him. It took three applications of the wet towel before his temperature dropped to 100° F. After the third application to the front, they rolled him over onto his stomach and applied the wet towel to his back. This time it did not take so long to bring the temperature down, and he was soon cool all over. He was relaxed, and it was easy to see that he had relief at last. The temperature did not rise again. He slept well that night and was soon over his problem.


A medicinal herb used in Europe since ancient times, St Johns wort or hypericum has recently caused excitement among scientists with its anti-viral action against the HIV virus which causes AIDS. This proven anti-viral activity may also lead to a breakthrough in the treatment of multiple sclerosis although research into its effect on both these retroviruses is still in its early stages.

St Johns wort taken internally has a proven effect on anxiety and depression and a reputation for suppressing urination, useful knowledge for parents of bedwetting children. It is a sedative and will relieve the pain of neuralgia as well as lessen the irritability triggered by menopausal change.

The aromatic herbal oil easily extracted from the plant’s bright yellow flowers has astringent and anti-inflammatory properties and is an excellent dressing for sunburn and superficial wounds.

St Johns wort grows well in Australia, so well in fact that it is considered a noxious weed in some states.


Anna was 78 when she was first referred to Dr Volz by a local consultant. By that time, her experiences with recurrent episodes of depression went back a quarter of a century. In the early 1980s she was treated with lithium carbonate, which was discontinued when it resulted in thyroid troubles. In the early 1990s she was treated with amitriptyline, one of the older anti-depressants, which caused her severe dry mouth and, on one occasion, an episode of fainting when she got up one night to go to the toilet. Then Prozac (20 mg per day) was tried, and even though it helped her depression to some degree, it caused unbearable sleep problems. Sometimes it would take her as long as two hours to fall asleep at night and then she would wake an average of three times during the course of the night.

When Anna consulted Dr Volz, he judged her to be moderately depressed while on Prozac, scoring 21 points on the well-known Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, on which the higher the score the more depressed the individual. Because of the severe sleep difficulties, Dr Volz decided to switch Anna to St John’s Wort. He did this without any overlap between medications, immediately discontinuing her Prozac and starting St John’s Wort (900 mg per day). Four days later Anna reported an improvement in the quality of her sleep, but her mood had deteriorated slightly and she now scored 24 on the Hamilton Rating Scale. Her dosage of St John’s Wort was increased to 1,800 mg per day. After three weeks her Rating score dropped to 20, after six weeks to 15 and after another four weeks to 10. Anna’s depression continues to improve. Once again, St John’s Wort triumphed where other medications had failed.

There are several lessons to be learned from Dr Volz and his patients. For many people, like Greta, herbal remedies are simply more acceptable than synthetic drugs. Perhaps it is because we are used to eating plants that they seem more natural than pills do. Even though we need double-blind studies, which include placebo controls, to make sure that any effects of a medication are specific and not just due to a placebo effect, it is hard not to become a believer in the anti-depressant effects of St John’s Wort when one encounters patients such as Greta. Adamantly opposed to the very idea that she was depressed and uninformed about the purported anti-depressant effects of St John’s Wort, her symptoms nevertheless responded completely, suggesting a specific effect of the herbal anti-depressant. An added advantage of St John’s Wort over the older anti-depressants is that, like the SSRIs, it does not appear to have any adverse effect on electrical conduction in the heart. For this reason, Dr Volz felt quite comfortable in using it to treat Greta’s depression even though her EKG had revealed some abnormalities in her cardiac conduction.

In Anna’s case, we see the importance of persevering with an anti-depressant treatment. After she was switched from Prozac to St John’s Wort, she initially appeared to get worse before her slow but progressive improvement over the course of the next several months. Her depression was moderately severe when she first consulted Dr Volz and had apparently been somewhat worse before she started Prozac. Nevertheless, St John’s Wort successfully turned it round, indicating once again the potency of the herbal remedy. Despite this potency, the mildness of the herbal antidepressant was apparent in the ease with which this elderly woman was able to tolerate it in dosages that are very much higher than those widely recommended for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression. This was in marked contrast with the synthetic anti-depressants she had previously taken and on which she had developed unacceptable side-effects.


Beverly Mehta came to me after reading in a popular sports weekly about my treatment of golf professional Billy Caspar. Miss Mehta was a singer and a teacher, but multiple, unexplained health problems were interfering with both of these activities. She often ran a low-grade fever of undetermined origin. She had rhinitis (runny nose). Above all, she suffered from physical and mental exhaustion and seemed to be unable to rouse herself to do anything. Because of the severity of her symptoms, she was hospitalized for diagnosis.

On the first day of her fast, a terrible headache set in. Her eyes became highly sensitive to light. On the next day she was listless, tired, and nauseated most of the time. Her head and legs ached. On the third day of the fast the symptoms started to clear. By the end of her five-day fast, she was feeling quite well—better than she had in a long time, she said.

Many foods, even in their chemically less contaminated form, caused unexpected symptoms. For example, lobster was followed by a hot, gassy sensation in her stomach. Her ears and eyes hurt, and two-and-a-half hours later her eyes were still visibly red, her glands swollen and painful.

Eating an orange was followed by a ringing sensation in the ears (tinnitus), itching, and chest pains. Carrots were associated with belching and sighing respiration. Potatoes made her feel hot and nauseous, with tremendous itching, perspiration, and sore throat. Her face became red and blotchy.

Wheat induced an equally dramatic reaction. First Miss Mehta felt warm and got transient pains in her fingers. She started sighing and complained that she felt as if “someone had given me knockout drops.” She said that she felt like crying, but couldn’t. These cerebral reactions were accompanied by belching, nausea, and coughing—and all this from some “innocent” wheat.

Coffee brought on “weepy” feelings. Corn and corn sugar caused a jump in her pulse rate from 90 to 135 beats per minute, a finding which Dr. Arthur Coca believed indicates food allergy.3

There were other foods to which Miss Mehta had no reactions. When some of these were given to her in a chemically more contaminated form, however, she had equally dramatic responses. Canned peaches were followed by huskiness in her voice and a chilled feeling which required her to be brought extra robes and blankets. She developed a sore throat, and her temperature rose to 100°F. “This is the way I feel at home much of the time,” said the young musician. “I simply sit in front of the television, with little desire to do anything. When I’m singing 1 slur my words at times like this.”

Athought she left the hospital in good condition, when she returned home she soon became sick again, with many of the brain-fag symptoms, although she had tried to follow the prescribed regimen. She told of feeling even worse at work.

I therefore decided to make a house call and I inspected her house and her place of employment for environmental sources of reactions. Her classroom was in the basement of a church. The janitor cheerfully showed me the plethora of chemicals used to clean the premises and to spray for insects on a regular basis. As I entered the room, I was immediately struck by the odor of solvent. The children in Miss Mehta’s class sat around a low table with big pads in front of them. Each child held an oversize marking pen of the solvent-based kind in his hand. The fumes from the pens filled the air. I also detected the odor of petroleum candles coming in from the church above. I suggested to Miss Mehta that this environment was helping to perpetuate her brain-fag symptoms and that she seek another job, which she did.

I did not hear from her for a number of years. Then one day she called: she had gone back to college, then to medical school, and was doing well. But she had gotten into the habit of drinking ten cups of coffee a day to keep up with the grueling amount of work. I helped her break this addiction. She finally graduated and became a physician.

This case illustrates very well most of the features of environmental disease. The patient did not have just one or two neatly defined symptoms, but many and varied complaints, physical and allegedly mental. Because of this, other doctors tended to dismiss her problem as “hysterical” in origin. The actual illness remained hidden from Miss Mehta, as it did from her physicians, because of nature’s own coverup of food and chemical susceptibility. It was only through the methods of clinical ecology that her many symptoms could be put into some recognizable framework (the plusses and minuses) and her particular problem could be worked out.

It turned out in this case, as in every other, that the particular causes of illness were unique for this teacher, just as they are unique for every allergic patient. There was no universal prescription or panacea for all such cases, no pill, potion, or drug which could really serve as a cure-all.

Beverly Mehta was fortunate in that her allergy was discovered and corrected, and she went on to have a useful and productive life. Many others have seen their ecologic illness progress to the final stage, the minus-four category.

In summary, one of the most commonly occurring symptoms in medicine, and especially in the histories of allergy patients, is chronic fatigue. Although fatigue may be the only manifestation of clinical ecology, it more commonly exists in conjunction with other manifestations. It occurs so frequently with brain-fag—especially among students—that the two conditions are best described together. Indeed, this combination is often a cause of students being accused of not working up to their measured expectations.


When married couples try but fail to have children, both the wife and husband need to be tested. There are several possible causes. In men, the Journal of the American Medical Association (249:2947) reports, perhaps the easiest type of infertility to treat is caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. This vitamin is also known as ascorbic acid, a name reflecting its ability to prevent scurvy (a disabling illness, with painful bruising around the bones that used to afflict sailors after months at sea without fresh fruit or vegetables).

A much less severe vitamin C deficiency, which is by no means severe enough to produce scurvy, can cause male infertility due to clumping together of the spermatozoa. Failure of separation prevents sperm from swimming towards the ovum. Mild deficiencies of this nature are diagnosed by measuring the concentration of vitamin C in the blood. The infertility can easily be overcome in a few weeks with one or two tablets of vitamin C (500 mg each) taken every day by mouth.


Acute gastroenteritis is a highly contagious infection of the digestive tract. It is probably caused by viruses, only a few of which have been identified. There is evidence that the disease may also be caused by some types of Escherichia coli bacteria. These bacteria are normally found in the human intestines, and most types of the bacteria are known to be harmless and even beneficial.

This disease is readily transmitted from person to person. Symptoms may begin within one to four days after being exposed to the germ. The disease is not generally serious except in young babies, who may become dehydrated (a serious loss of body fluids). Acute gastroenteritis has no relationship to true influenza (a disease of the respiratory tract).

Signs and symptoms

Acute gastroenteritis causes sudden vomiting or diarrhea and cramps. The disease may last one to three days or as long as a week. Fever may be high (40°C), low (38.3°C), or absent. Blood in diarrhea is rare. Occasionally, if vomiting is severe, there are small amounts of blood in the vomit, and petechiae (red spots) may appear on the face.

Acute gastroenteritis is more easily identified if there are other cases in the family or neighborhood. It occasionally may be confused with dysentery and food poisoning.

Home care

Treat both vomiting and diarrhea by limiting food intake to clear liquids until the illness subsides. To avoid dehydration, give the child plenty of the following clear liquids: tea, water, flavored gelatin water, and commercial mineral and electrolyte mixtures. Do not give the child milk. Paracetamol is better for relief of fever than aspirin because aspirin occasionally aggravates vomiting in some children.


• Practice good hygiene. Be sure to wash your hands before going from the patient to other children in the house. Wash hands carefully before preparing food.

• If a young child develops the disease, watch carefully for signs of dehydration (infrequent urinating, dryness in the mouth, sunken eyes, drowsiness, rapid or slow breathing, sunken soft spot in the scalp). If any symptoms of dehydration appear, call your doctor.

• Do not give anti-diarrheal medications to children, since side effects are common and can be dangerous.

• If there is blood in the stools, high fever, prostration (extreme weakness or collapse), or severe or prolonged diarrhea (more than two to three days), call your doctor. Dysentery may be the cause.

Medical treatment

Your doctor will confirm the diagnosis by knowledge of what illnesses are occurring in the community, by the circumstances of the child’s illness, and by absence of other physical findings on examination. Blood count and a stool culture might be required if diagnosis is in doubt. Otherwise, your doctor’s treatment will be the same as home treatment. If there is evidence of dehydration in an infant, hospitalization will be necessary in order to give the child intravenous fluids.



Food fibre is found in fruits, cereals, beans and vegetables. There are several kinds of fibre and they are not digested in the stomach or bowel, but assist in normal bowel function. They appear to be beneficial in the prevention of certain bowel diseases and particularly help prevent constipation.

There is some evidence that fibre in fruits and cereals and vegetables may help prevent too rapid an absorption of glucose from the carbohydrate in these foods. This is certainly helpful in the control of non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and may also be helpful in the diet of young people with diabetes. Recent evidence shows that a diet rich in fibre leads to better diabetic control.


Fluids, either as water or in some beverage or food, are of course essential to health. Thirst is a good guide to requirements and you should respect a child’s desire to drink by letting him have water freely. Children sometimes drink large quantities of sweet drinks such as cordials and soft drinks and flavoured milk. They may drink these because of their sweet taste rather than their need to have fluids. For this reason sugar containing drinks are not used as part of the diabetic diet and artificially sweetened drinks may need to be rationed to help educate a child not to rely on sweet drinks.

Many solid foods have quite high water content and supply much of a child’s fluid requirements.

Meals provide constant glucose in the bloodstream

A diabetic diet takes into account the need for providing all these foods in proper amounts for good health. However, as well as providing the overall nutritional needs of the body, the regular taking of food ensures that there is a constant supply of glucose being absorbed into the bloodstream throughout the day. Sugars in food (such as fruit or milk) lead to a quick supply of glucose, whereas starches, being more slowly digested, lead to a steadier absorption over a longer period. With snacks at mid-morning, mid-afternoon and supper-time, the glucose supply is given a ‘boost’ which maintains a satisfactory level until the next main meal.

Meal times must be regular

Clearly, if this relatively constant supply of glucose in the blood is to be maintained, meal times have to be as regular as possible. Being late for a meal may mean that the glucose from the previous meal is disappearing from the blood, and too low a level may result. Being too early may lead to too long a gap to the next meal, with the same result.



The basis for teenage behaviour lies at least in part in the developmental process of adolescence. As every parent of a teenager knows, adolescence is not just a time of rapid growth and sexual maturation. It is also a period of psychological, emotional and social development. This development is just as important for the teenager as physical growth.

Adolescents have to proceed through a number of emotional developmental changes if they are to become mature adults. In many ways this is similar to the toddler as he passes from baby dependence to the independence of self-feeding, toileting and going off to kindergarten. Adolescents also have to achieve independence from their parents and they can make even more fuss in doing so. Teenagers must also establish their own self-esteem, measuring up with others of their age. They have to work out their own sexual feelings and develop a mature attitude to sex as part of a relationship with someone else. They have to work out where they are going, who they are and what their life career will be. They have to do all these things in a few turbulent teenage years with all the stresses of competitive school life and uncertain employment prospects.

It is no wonder that on top of all this a teenager with diabetes may have little time for sticking to all the rules of diabetic control. No wonder, in sorting out priorities, adolescent development may have a higher rating than exact diet and regular blood tests.

Fortunately for parents, adolescence only lasts a few years, but it is also a rewarding and entertaining time for the family. At this time it is important to set realistic goals for care of the diabetes. Realize that precise compliance probably isn’t possible just yet, but will occur later. Recognize that it is probably more important to be a parent and let your child’s doctor act the part of diabetes watch-dog.


How does your child feel about his diet?

It may be up to you to find out how your child feels about these sweet foods. If he has been used to a lot of sweets, and if the family has tended to regard sweets as rewards, then an abrupt denial of them all (particularly if the rest of the family goes on eating them) may be very upsetting for your child. He may even interpret the denial as a sort of punishment. ‘I ate too much sugar and so I got diabetes. Now I am being punished by being forbidden them.’ This is of course nonsense, but it is surprising how many children feel this way.

Diet is not a punishment

He may rebel and take sweets and cakes when no one is looking. He may yield to temptation occasionally and have a taste of some forbidden food (like a heavy smoker who is advised to stop smoking). In either case he will probably feel guilty afterwards, and this feeling of guilt will be made worse if you blame him, or reproach him, or worse still, punish him.

All children will break their diet occasionally

Children may not always seem logical. They may not believe you if you say that you are stopping them having cake for their own good (especially if you say this while you yourself are enjoying a luscious piece of iced cake).

Much explanation is necessary, and much understanding. If he does break his diet, and you find out, you may find that the best way to act is to let him realize that you know and disapprove, but avoid punishment or blame.

Your child has to live in a society where sweet carbohydrate foods are in profusion, and no party is a party without the cake. You cannot prevent him seeing other children enjoying these things, and although you will make some changes in your own home, you cannot perhaps deny all the rest of the family everything sweet. You may be able to help your child develop strengths of self-discipline in relation to food and show that you are also capable of some self-discipline yourself. You must help your child to accept, not only that he cannot freely have sweet things, but that other people can have them.


Early warning signs

At the stage when the level of glucose in the blood is falling rapidly, there will usually be warning signs before the level becomes too low. These include hunger, tremulousness, dizziness, headache, shaking, weakness or other odd feelings the child himself learns to recognize. At this stage the child may become pale and sweaty with a rapid pulse rate.

These warning signs are readily corrected by taking sugar.

There may possibly come a time – perhaps because the / warning signs were not recognized or heeded or because they were only present for a few moments, or in some cases they may not have been present at all – when blood glucose may fall to very low levels. When this occurs, it may mean that there is insufficient glucose for the efficient functioning of the brain, which depends on a constant supply of glucose from the blood.

Later signs

So the brain, deprived of sufficient glucose, may act in an unusual fashion and this leads to unusual behaviour of the child. He may become irritable, or cry easily, lose concentration and seem vague or be unreasonable or bad tempered. He may get a headache, or feel dizzy, ‘funny’ or drowsy. He may become weak in some muscles, or develop trembling of his limbs. He may even lose consciousness and some children may have a convulsion although this is very rare.

A hypo reaction may happen quickly

Usually these things develop quite rapidly and at a time when the child has been otherwise well. A normal or even a high blood glucose level earlier in the day does not rule out the possibility that a hypo may occur later, as the blood glucose level may fall quite rapidly from a high to a low level in a few hours.

When may a hypo reaction occur?

Although one child differs from another in his behaviour during a hypo, he tends to have the same sort of reaction each time he has one. Thus he or his parents quickly come to recognize a hypo when it is developing, and treatment can be given at once before more serious signs develop. Hypos tend to occur when sugar produced from a recent meal is largely used up and at its lowest level; often just before the next meal is due. Other times to be on the lookout for hypo reaction are after strenuous exercise or unusual activity. Each type of insulin has its time of maximum effect and at these times there is the most likelihood of an insulin reaction.

Difficulties in recognizing hypo reaction

There will be times in the early stages of your child’s diabetes, and especially if he is a baby or toddler, when you may be uncertain whether unusual behaviour is due to a reaction or not. As you get more experienced, you will learn to recognize reactions quite easily, but if you are in any doubt it is better to regard the unusual behaviour as a reaction and treat it. Note whether there is an improvement after giving treatment; if so it was probably a hypo reaction and if not probably was not. Very occasionally some children ‘put on’ bad behaviour and complain of headache to get the extra sugar you will use to treat the supposed reaction. If you suspect this, do a blood test. A low test will tend to confirm the probability that it is a hypo reaction.

Some symptoms of a hypo – paleness, sweating, shakiness for example, are the result of the body’s reaction when the glucose level in the blood is rapidly falling. This can occur when the glucose is falling from say 6 to 3 mmol/1, so there is a true hypo, but can also occur if, say, the blood glucose falls from 12 to 8 mmol/1. In this case, the child is heading for a hypo but is not actually hypoglycemic. This may explain why the blood test is not always low when symptoms occur.

It also helps to explain why sometimes a child’s blood glucose level may be found to be low but there are no symptoms. In this case, perhaps the blood glucose has been falling slowly, so the body doesn’t recognize the fall and there is no reaction.


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